By Mary Carver, P.H.Ec.
Michelle J. Kwan - a 4th year Nutrition and Food Ryerson student has won 1st place in the Ontario Home Economics Association (OHEA) media release competition for the second year in a row. The award was presented at the OHEA conference on March 23rd.
Kwan’s 2013 article Physical Activity in a Tech Savvy Workplace will be distributed nationally, in early May. Using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007-2009 completed by Stats Canada (in partnership with Heath Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada), Michelle emphasizes why it is imperative for Canadians to become more physically active. Kwan offers tips for those whose jobs keep them desk-bound.
Michelle will graduate from Ryerson’s Nutrition and Food program this year. Already holding a Bachelor of Fine Arts from York University, Michelle has been an outstanding student on the Ryerson campus. She served as Communications Director for the Nutrition Course Union, as Communications & Social Media Coordinator for Critical Dietetics and as a former Leader for Nutrition Health Promotion outreach teams.
The former Miss Universe Canada delegate and fitness enthusiast is passionate about nutrition and good health and continues to share credible health information on Twitter @NutritionArtist. Watch for the name Michelle J. Kwan in ‘by lines’ for years to come.
Access Michelle’s 2012 wining release, The Power of 8, Sleep for Health and Wellness here.
OHEA congratulates Michelle and all students that entered the competition and encourages them to continue to share their knowledge.
Ontario Home Economics Association © 2013
By Maria Depenweiller, P.H.Ec.
Here is something to ponder the next time you are sorting out your laundry, one of probably the most unappreciated household chores.
Ancient Roman Laundry
As we know, almost everything new is well forgotten old. This is particularly true in the case of ancient Roman laundry. With their well developed urban systems Romans were the first to offer public laundry services. Fullones, the clothes washers, were in charge of washing and cleaning the garments of the Roman citizens.
As the Romans generally wore clothes made out of wool (there was no cotton in ancient Rome) they needed frequent washing in the hot climate of Italy. The way in which this was done has been described by Pliny and other writers, but is most clearly explained by some paintings which have been found on the walls of a fullonica (laundry service) at Pompeii.
In ancient Rome laundry was a man’s job. The clothes were first washed, which was done in tubs or vats, where they were trodden upon and stamped by the feet of the fullones. After the clothes had been washed, they were hung out to dry, and were allowed to be placed in the street before the doors of the fullonica. When dry, the wool was brushed and carded to raise the nap, sometimes with the skin of a hedgehog, and sometimes with some plants of the thistle kind. The clothes were then hung on a special basket - viminea cavea, under which sulphur was placed in order to whiten the cloth (just imagine the odour!). A fine white earth, called cimolian by Pliny, was often rubbed into the cloth to increase its whiteness.
Ancient Europe Laundry
Unlike the ancient Rome, medieval Europeans tended to rely on their own forces rather than public services when it came to laundry. Most often this was done on river banks, even if the rivers were frozen. Special tools were used for this purpose – washing bats and scrubbing boards. They were used to agitate the clothing in running water to force the dirt out and to smooth the fabric during drying. No ironing was done at that time. After thorough wash the garments were laid out flat on the ground to allow the sun do the bleaching and drying. Clearly such an exercise was not a weekly routine and was only done once in a while, whenever a large enough amount of dirty clothes accumulated. Finer parts such as lace collars, trimmings and fine under shirts were laundered separately and more often with less aggressive methods.
Soap, mainly soft soap made from ash lye and animal fat, was used by washerwoman who were paid for their work. Soap was rarely used by the poorest people in medieval times but by the 18th century soap was fairly widespread: sometimes kept for finer clothing and for tackling stains, not used for the whole wash. Starch and bluing were also available for better quality linen and clothing.
The First Washing Machines
Hand (or feet) laundry washing reigned for centuries until the first washing machine was designed by H. Sidgier of Great Britain in 1782. It consisted of a cage with wooden rods and a handle for turning
From this design in the late 1800's different companies started producing hand operated machines that used paddles or dollies. Then came the revolving drum from James King in 1851. This was shortly followed by a revolving drum with reversing action, from Hamilton Smith in 1858.
The earliest manual washing machines imitated the motion of the human hand on the washboard, by using a lever to move one curved surface over another and rubbing clothes between two ribbed surfaces. This type of washer was first patented in the United States in 1846 and survived as late as 1927 in the Montgomery Ward catalogue. The first electric clothes washers, in which a motor rotated the tub, were introduced into America about 1900. The motor was not protected beneath the machine and water often dripped into it causing short-circuits and jolting shocks. By 1911, it was possible to buy oscillating, cylinder, domestic washing machines with sheet metal tubs mounted on angle-iron frames with perforated metal or wooden slat cylinders inside.
Beatty Brothers of Fergus, Ontario was the first company to produce an agitator washing machine. The early Beatty machines had ribbed copper tubs which were nickel or nickel-chromium plated. In the US, the first firm to adopt agitator technology was Maytag. The vertical orientation of these machines became the industry standard replacing the horizontal rotating axis of earlier machines.
Starting in the 1920s, white enamelled sheet metal replaced the copper tub and angle-iron legs. By the early 1940s, enamelled steel was used and sold as being more sanitary, easier to clean and longer lasting than the other finishes. The sheet-metal skirt was also designed to extend below the level of the motor mount.
In the early 1920s, a number of Canadian machines were offered with built-in gas or electric water heaters. By the 1930s, domestic water heaters were in many homes and the washing machine heater was of little use. The addition of a motor-driven drain pump at this time moved the machine one step closer to complete automaticity.
The next development of the washing machine was the fitting of a clock timing device which allowed the machine to be set to operate for a pre-determined length of wash cycle. Now, the operator no longer needed to constantly monitor its action.
By the early 1950s, many American manufacturers were supplying machines with a spin-dry feature to replace the wringer which removed buttons, and caused accidents involving hair and hands. In 1957, GE introduced a washing machine equipped with 5 push buttons to control wash temperature, rinse temperature, agitation speed and spin speed.
Not bad progress for a household chore, don’t you think?
Maria Depenweiller is the owner of The Wooden Spoon, a consulting service, that provides services such as cooking classes, educational seminars and workshops, recipe development and testing as well as food writing. Maria is the author of several books in Russian language on food history and low protein cooking. For further details please www.thewoodenspoon.ca
Maria is a Toronto-based Professional Home Economist and an active member of the Ontario Home Economics Association (OHEA), Ontario Home Economists in Business (OHEIB), and a newsletter editor for the Toronto Home Economist Association (THEA).
Ontario Home Economics Association © 2013
By Erin MacGregor, P.H.Ec., RD
Canadians are embracing vegetarian restaurants, buying meat-free cookbooks and consuming an increasing number of vegetable-centric meals at home. It appears that Meatless Mondays are official.
Much of this recent popularity stems from a growing body of research which indicates that a vegetarian lifestyle can significantly reduce one’s risk of developing chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes.
Nevertheless, improved health is not the only reason people enlist a more plant based diet. Some choose flora over fauna for ethical reasons. Others relish the opportunity to reduce their ecological footprint by adopting more environmentally sustainable eating habits.
Regardless of the motivation for the lifestyle choice, the term ‘vegetarianism’ no longer carries a concrete definition. People identifying themselves as vegetarian now lie within a larger spectrum where the degree to which they limit animal products in their diet may vary considerably.
The following are common new vegetarianism terms:
Vegan: Avoids all animal products and byproducts including meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products and eggs. An example of a lesser known byproduct includes gelatin, which is derived from animal collagen and can be found in some processed foods, including candy and marshmallows.
Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian: Avoids all animal products other than dairy products (lacto) and eggs (ovo). Dairy products containing gelatin or rennet, found in some yogurt and cheese products, may also be avoided.
Pescetarian: Avoids all animal products and by-products other than fish and shellfish. Pesce is the Italian word for fish.
Flexitarian (or Semi-vegetarian): As of 2012, this term is officially defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary as ‘one whose normally meatless diet occasionally includes meat or fish’.
Entertaining vegetarian guests can be a challenge. The following recipe is loaded with great flavour and wholesome ingredients to impress meat eaters and vegetarians alike. To make this recipe vegan friendly, simply omit the sour cream (or yogurt) and cheese.
Roasted Butternut Squash Enchiladas
1 small butternut squash
2 green onions, white and light green parts, finely sliced
1 canned Chipotle Pepper in Adobo Sauce along with 1 tsp (5 mL) of the Adobo Sauce
1/2 tsp (2 mL) cumin
3 Tbsp (45 mL) sour cream or plain Greek yogurt
3/4 cup (185 mL) refried beans (for a lower sodium option, the same amount of drained and rinsed canned black beans)
6 medium sized (approx. 8”) whole grain whole wheat tortillas or corn tortillas
1 cup (250 mL) salsa
1 cup (250 mL) shredded Monterey Jack cheese
Additional sour cream and chopped chives for garnish (optional)
1. Preheat oven to 400º F. Cut squash in half lengthwise. Remove seeds and bake cut-side down on a lightly oiled baking sheet for 40 min. Remove from oven. Cool slightly. Reduce oven to 350º F.
2. Scoop cooked flesh from squash into a large bowl. Add green onions, chipotle pepper, adobo sauce, cumin and sour cream and stir with a fork while mashing the squash, until well combined. 3. Spread 2 Tbsp (30 mL) of refried beans and 1/2 cup (125 mL) of the squash mixture down the centre of each tortilla. Roll each tortilla. Place them side by side in an 8” X 11” (28 x 17 cm) baking dish.
4. Top with salsa and cheese. Bake for 15 - 20 minutes until cheese is bubbly.
Serves 3 – 4
Erin MacGregor, P.H.Ec., RD is a Professional Home Economist and Registered Dietitian working at Toronto’s Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and in her community. MacGregor co-authors How to Eat - a blog encouraging busy families to cook simple, wholesome food, www.howtoeat.ca. As a member of OHEA, Erin contributed to the national best seller: The Vegetarian’s Complete Quinoa Cookbook, a lacto-ovo vegetarian friendly collaboration from the Ontario Home Economics Association, a self-regulated body of Professional Home Economists that promotes high professional standards among its members so that they may assist families/individuals to achieve and maintain a desirable quality of life.
For further information, contact: Ontario Home Economics Association, 14 Totten Place, Woodstock, ON N4S 8G7 Website: www.ohea.on.ca Phone: 519-290-1843 Email: email@example.com
Ontario Home Economics Association © 2013
This year's Ontario Home Economics Association Conference was a huge success! The speakers, the venue, the food, the exhibitors, the conference committee, the emcee, the raffle prizes, the silent auction, and the delegate bags were all phenomenal. We are grateful to our sponsors who made this memorable day possible and would like to take the opportunity to extend our sincere gratitude.
OHEA is very thankful for the overwhelming support of our sponsors, who were not only instrumental in the success of the conference, but who were paramount in helping us spread awareness and understanding of the incredible and diverse profession of Home Economics.
You can view our full list of sponsors here...
Ontario Home Economics Association © 2013
Thank you to our friends at the Manitoba Association of Home Economists for sharing the following article on their Home & Family blog featuring Professional Home Economists Donna Washburn and Heather Butt.
The authors of 125 Best Gluten-Free Recipes, Donna Washburn and Heather Butt offer some wonderful suggestions for teaching kids about eating gluten-free:
Donna Washburn, P.H.Ec. and Heather Butt, P.H.Ec are Professional Home Economists and co-authors of 300 Best Canadian Bread Machine Recipes (Robert Rose Inc. 2009). They have extensive recipe development expertise working with many bread machine manufacturers and yeast companies. Cookbooks by the same authors are: 250 Best Canadian Bread Machine Baking Recipes; 125 Best Gluten-Free Recipes; Best Gluten-Free Family Cookbook; Complete Gluten-Free Cookbook; 250 GlutenFree Favorites; and 125 Gluten-Free Bread Machine Recipes – released April 2010. (All books published by Robert Rose Inc.). More information at www.bestbreadrecipes.com or contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Ontario Home Economics Association, a self-regulating body of professional Home Economists, promotes high professional standards among its members so that they may assist families and individuals to achieve and maintain a desirable quality of life.